Looking for rental assistance?

Renters and landlords can find out what emergency rental assistance covers, how it works, and who’s eligible on the interagency housing portal hosted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB).

Eviction Diversion

Partnerships with Broader Eviction Diversion Programs

Many grantees have found that partnerships with their local court systems and legal services organizations are critical tools for preventing housing insecurity and helping landlords recover from rental arrearages. While court systems and eviction procedures vary across states and localities, these grantees have engaged with local courts, legal aid organizations, and other stakeholders to reach households with the greatest need for assistance—those facing imminent eviction. These partnerships have often included streamlined procedures that reduce the eligibility documentation required from households in these situations. 

Efforts by ERA grantees are sometimes complementary to broader eviction diversion programs.  These efforts play an important function in cases where the landlord had already started eviction proceedings.  In addition to expediting ERA applications, they often prevent evictions by utilizing the support of legal service professionals and mediators in interventions at the early stages of the court process.  ERA grantees have also found court data helpful for informing targeted outreach efforts to landlords and/or high-need geographic areas.

Focus on mediation

The State of Massachusetts

The State of Massachusetts has developed a two-tiered eviction process that has integrated the ERA program into eviction proceedings. In the first tier, landlords and tenants work with a mediator who can direct them to ERA resources to cover qualified rental arrears. This state-funded program also engages legal aid services, as well as housing reinstatement services, for those cases where tenants ultimately experience eviction.

Focus on data sharing with local courts

The city of Memphis and Shelby County, TN

The city of Memphis and Shelby County’s joint program includes a data sharing relationship with the local court system. This partnership affords ERA program administrators real-time information about neighborhoods with increased eviction activity, allowing more targeted outreach towards tenants and landlords.  Using this data, the ERA program administrators have been able to foster effective relationships with larger apartment complexes and engage directly with tenants on the premises. Memphis and Shelby County have also contracted with a local nonprofit organization with experience providing legal services to tenants facing evictions, helping them to reach settlement and avoid evictions. Further efforts to expand tenants’ access to legal services have included enlisting faculty and student volunteers from the local law school.  The Memphis and Shelby County ERA program expedites ERA applications that come through these channels, allowing many households to use ERA funds to remain stably housed rather than enduring the hardship of a court-approved eviction.

The city of Philadelphia, PA

The city of Philadelphia’s ERA program is also integrated directly into the city’s eviction court system. The court requires defendants to apply for the city’s ERA program before allowing the eviction to proceed. Further, all landlords who enroll in the city’s ERA program are automatically enrolled in the eviction diversion system, alerting them to the resources offered by the city to help avoid tenant evictions, such as nonprofit mediation services.

Focus on a multi-faceted approach

The city of Louisville, KY

Louisville, KY is utilizing a multi-pronged approach to eviction diversion that includes legal representation for tenants, community based outreach, and collaboration with local courts. The city has allocated $400,000 of their ERA funding to enact a right to counsel program for tenants with children who are facing eviction. Their Office of Resilience and Community Services has partnered with the Office of Women, Office of Housing, Neighborhood Place, and the Coalition for the Homeless to target and reach out to Louisville residents at risk of eviction. The collaboration with the Office of Women was born out of the recognition that female led households, especially those headed by African-Americans, are disproportionately targeted for eviction. Outreach includes knocking on doors, sending texts, and making phone calls to encourage these tenants not to miss their court dates. Staff also attend eviction court on a daily basis and can coordinate with the judges to stay eviction for tenants who could benefit from emergency rental assistance. To aid tenants who “self-evict”, by moving when they receive an eviction notice, the city has put in place a rapid-rehousing program that provides a rental deposit and the first month’s rent to help people relocate.

Eviction diversion maturity levels

The following maturity model can help grantees shape a strategy and have actionable steps to address eviction diversion. A maturity model is a tool that helps organize strategy, practices, and process into a framework that can act as a blueprint for building up stronger capabilities. This model is intended to aid ERA grantees and stakeholders in determining their program’s current development stage and identify improvements that will facilitate increasingly robust, comprehensive, and effective approaches to ensuring housing stability within their jurisdictions.

Disclaimer: The practices referenced in this model may contemplate the leveraging of ERA funding with other federal, state, and local resources. The model’s reference to an example practice should not be construed as confirming such practice’s eligibility for any particular type or category of federal funding. Grantees should consult the governing federal program authorities for additional guidance before expending funds for such purposes to confirm eligibility.

  • Eviction Diversion Maturity Model

    The maturity model is also provided in a PDF to take away and use your with team to discuss strategies and approaches

Resourcing & shaping programs


Leverage existing system assets

Utilize existing system resources, programs, staff, and community organizations to help manage and shape the program.

Practices might include:

  • Listen to community organizations and advocates and host conversations
  • Utilize existing system resources, programs, staff, and contract vehicles to help manage the program
  • Use fact-specific proxy and categorical eligibility to expedite processing assistance
  • Apply for HUD grants to support legal aid for tenants at risk of eviction

Build with the community

Listen to local residents to understand needs; leverage partners outside the traditional housing system; and determine how to best use funding sources.

Practices might include:

  • Listen to local residents to understand needs
  • Leverage partners outside the traditional housing system to help deliver services and outreach, e.g. Libraries and faith-based organizations
  • Determine how to best use funding sources
  • Establish living experience groups for continuous feedback

Prepare for volume of evictions

Automate and optimize processes with tech and data; Connect directly with tenants before court; Expedited rental payments.

Practices might include:


Sustain for the future

Plan and prepare for the systemic housing challenges after evictions.

Practices might include:

  • Create a sustainability plan for longevity of the eviction diversion program beyond ERA
  • Set up displacement resources and funds for households that have been evicted
  • Pool funding from justice, health, and housing services to create a accountability and shared resources for housing stability
  • Create a review process where households can have evictions removed from their records

Tenant interventions


Do community-based outreach

Work closely with trusted community sources and people to get the word out about rental assistance.

Practices might include:

  • Reach out to populations at high risk of eviction
  • Work closely with local housing advocates and organizations
  • Inform tenants about any locally-based eviction moratorium and alert them that they may need to give a form to their landlord
  • Debunk common myths on ERA
  • Follow up directly with tenants who are missing documentation but have started applications

Use aimed outreach

Increase awareness and accessibility through a portfolio of partners and approaches to connect with specific high risk populations.

Practices might include:

  • Use data-informed/targeted outreach to high risk households and households being evicted
  • Share information through a diverse portfolio of channels (digital, media, door to door, peer to peer; clinics, Facebook live, etc.)
  • Partner with grassroots organizations to deliver services related to housing stability
  • Provide in-person assistance for people who are not able to navigate the site on their own (office or their homes)
  • Use place-based outreach (i.e., grocery stores, clinics, etc.)

Connect to options

Provide information and pathways to services that can help stabilize tenants and their housing while in crisis.

Practices might include:

  • Court-based interventions/connections to services and education
  • Connect tenants to a housing counselor
  • Deliver wrap-around services supporting the social determinants of health
  • Offer a hotline for legal aid across agencies and include phone number on eviction notices
  • Provide information about legal aid and resources online

Advocate for and empower

Provide education, guidance and legal representation on housing rights before and during eviction process.

Practices might include:

  • Provide legal representation in court and consistent advocacy throughout the process
  • Establish educational centers/courses that are accessible and promoted even before eviction begins
  • Provide a universal and codified right to counsel for tenants

Landlord & property manager interventions


Accept ERA applications from landlords

Encourage and give tools or processes to landlords that helps them be a proactive applicant.

Practices might include:

  • Encourage applications from landlords even if tenants have not applied
  • Accept documentation provided by landlords on a tenant's behalf
  • Require a landlord's agreement not to evict assisted tenants for nonpayment of rent for at least 30-90 days as a condition to receiving ERA assistance
  • Make bulk ERA payments to landlords to expedite payment processing

Use aimed outreach

Increase awareness through partnerships with real estate, homeowners and property managers groups.

Practices might include:

  • Leverage local community organizations to publicize ERA (i.e., real estate groups and property management resource centers)
  • Message the community benefits of keeping people in their homes and the important role that housing providers play
  • Outreach and messaging so landlords know they are included in "rental assistance"

Engage and educate

Encourage landlords to honor eviction moratorium and provide information that can help proceed.

Practices might include:

  • Establish strong local eviction moratoriums
  • Establish court-based educational opportunities and courses
  • Target housing providers of large buildings in low-income areas and encourage them to apply for emergency rental assistance

Incentivize and support

Provide immediate financial assistance to reduce the burden on landlords and offer recognition for service provided to the community.

Practices might include:

Relationship-based interventions


Advocate for early communication

Create messaging and outreach that encourages early and transparent communication between parties.

Practices might include:

  • Require landlords to provide tenants sufficient notice of eviction, dollar amount owed, and information on where to find rental assistance
  • Encourage landlords to inform their tenants about emergency rental assistance
  • Remind landlords that evicting tenants prevents them from collecting rental arrears via ERA programs

Create connected applications

Create an application process that connects tenants and landlords easily and makes transparent each parties part.

Practices might include:

  • Create connectivity on the backend to connect landlord and tenant applications by street address for system integrity and expedited processing
  • Create incentives for landlord/tenant cooperation in application (i.e., communicate expedited processing time)

Build bridges between parties

Provide mediation services between tenants, landlords, and property managers.

Practices might include:


Incentivize resolutions

Change property management and eviction courts incentives in order to reward dismissal of evictions.

Practices might include:

  • "Loan programs" where tenant pays back local government what they owe landlord; government pays landlord to reduce burden/delay with payment plan
  • Change success metric and incentives for courts, properties, and lawyers so that they are rewarded for dismissal of evictions
  • Offer landlord/tenant mediation before eviction process (as a preventative measure) and during eviction process

Prioritize eviction cases for ERA


Flag tenants in imminent danger of eviction

Prioritize tenants for emergency rental assistance who face immediate evictions.

Practices might include:

  • Ask tenants to attach an eviction notice, if they have one, to their application
  • Prioritize processing applicants who receive an eviction or utility shut off notice while waiting for a decision on their application

Involve courts to address eviction crisis

Connect ERA grantees with courts processing evictions so they can collaborate to assist eligible tenants.

Practices might include:

  • Establish MOU between courts and ERA grantee
  • Check to see if people at eviction court have applied for emergency rental assistance or are eligible
  • Help courts increase their digital capacity
  • Use legal service providers to flag upcoming cases on the eviction docket that are likely candidates for rental assistance
  • Pause hearing eviction cases until their ERA applications are processed

Partner to expedite

Work with multiple partners to optimize collaboration to connect with tenants missing documentation and on the eviction court docket.

Practices might include:


Proactively address

Share data across the system to create shared understanding and automated processes that allows grantees to better prioritize and connect with tenants.

Practices might include:

  • Connect different data streams to knowledge base/case management system with input from different data streams
  • Use analytics to pull applications to the top- prioritizing people who are behind on utilities/other risks


What are eligible “other affordable rental housing and eviction prevention purposes” under the statute establishing ERA2?

The statute establishing ERA2 provides that a grantee may use any of its ERA2 funds that are unobligated on October 1, 2022, for “affordable rental housing and eviction prevention purposes, as defined by the Secretary, serving very low-income families (as such term is defined in section 3(b) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437a(b))).”1 However, in accordance with the ERA2 statute, prior to obligating any funds for such purposes, the grantee must have obligated at least 75 percent of the total ERA2 funds allocated to it for financial assistance to eligible households, eligible costs for housing stability services, and eligible administrative costs. These requirements are described below.2

Eligible Uses of ERA2 Funds

Eligible Affordable Rental Housing Purposes. Eligible “affordable rental housing purposes” are expenses3 for:

  • the construction, rehabilitation, or preservation of affordable rental housing projects serving very low-income families; and
  • the operation of affordable rental housing projects serving very low-income families that were constructed, rehabilitated, or preserved using ERA2 funds.4

For purposes of the definition above, affordable rental housing projects serve very low-income families only if:

  • the household income of occupants of units funded by ERA2 funds is limited to the maximum income applicable to very low-income families, as such term is defined in section 3(b) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)); and
  • such income limitation is imposed through a covenant, land use restriction agreement (LURA), or other enforceable legal requirement for a period of at least 20 years.

In addition, to be considered an affordable rental housing purpose serving very low-income families, an affordable rental housing project funded, in whole or in part, with ERA2 funds must conform to and meet the program regulations and other requirements of one or more of the types of assistance listed below. In other words, uses of ERA2 funds for an affordable rental housing purpose must be aligned with at least one of the following programs and must meet the requirements of that program along with the other conditions specifically set forth in this FAQ:5

  • Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (Treasury);
  • HOME Investment Partnerships Program (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD));
  • HOME-ARP Program (HUD);
  • Housing Trust Fund Program (HUD);
  • Public Housing Capital Fund (HUD);
  • Indian Housing Block Grant Program (HUD);
  • Section 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly (HUD);
  • Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons with Disabilities (HUD);
  • Farm Labor Housing Direct Loans and Grants (U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA));
  • Multifamily Preservation and Revitalization Program (USDA).

Eligible Eviction Prevention Purposes. Eligible “eviction prevention purposes” are defined in the same manner as housing stability services under FAQ 23; however, services provided with funds made available for eviction prevention purposes must serve very low-income families.

Cost Allocation. Grantees may use ERA2 funds as part of the financing for a mixed-income housing project if the total financing made up of ERA2 award funds does not exceed the total development costs attributable to affordable rental housing units serving very low-income families.6 For example, if 25 percent of a project’s units will be reserved for very low-income families and 20 percent of the total costs of all housing units in the project are attributable to such reserved units, then ERA2 funds may be used to pay for up to 20 percent of the total development costs.

Form of Provision of Funds and Time of Obligation.  Grantees that use ERA2 funds for an eligible affordable rental housing purpose may provide such funds in the form of loans (including no-interest loans and deferred-payment loans), interest subsidies, grants, or other financial arrangements.  ERA2 funds may not be used to establish, provide financial support to, or invest in revolving loan funds or other structured funds.

Under the ERA2 statute, grantees may obligate funds only until September 30, 2025, and all obligations must be liquidated by the closeout date of the award in accordance with the Uniform Guidance, i.e., no later than 120 calendar days after September 30, 2025. 7 ERA2 funds are considered to be obligated upon the grantee’s approval 8of the loan, interest subsidy, grant, or other financial arrangement, and such obligations are considered to be liquidated for the purpose of award closeout upon the grantee’s disbursement of the ERA2 funds.  Any proceeds or income a grantee receives after September 30, 2025, from loans, interest subsidies, or other similar financial arrangements made with ERA2 funds must be used for affordable rental housing purposes or eviction prevention purposes in accordance with this FAQ.

Obligation of 75 Percent of Allocated Funds

Treasury will calculate the 75 percent obligation threshold as (i) the total amount of ERA2 funds the grantee has obligated 9for financial assistance to eligible households, eligible costs for housing stability services, and eligible administrative costs, divided by (ii) the grantee’s total ERA2 allocation, including any amounts reallocated to and excluding any amounts recaptured from the grantee.  For example, if a grantee voluntarily reallocated 50 percent of its total initial ERA2 allocation, and did not experience any other reallocation, it must obligate 75 percent of its post-reallocation amount (or 37.5 percent of its initial ERA2 allocation) to use its remaining ERA2 funds for eligible affordable rental housing and eviction prevention purposes.  If a grantee reaches the 75 percent threshold after October 1, 2022, it may begin using ERA2 funds for eligible affordable rental housing and eviction prevention purposes once it reaches the threshold.

Administrative Costs Attributable to Affordable Rental Housing and Eviction Prevention Purposes

The statute establishing ERA2 permits each grantee to use up to 15 percent of the total amount of ERA2 funds paid to it for eligible administrative costs.  Consistent with FAQ 29, any direct and indirect administrative costs must be allocated by the grantee to the provision of financial assistance, housing stability services, or other affordable rental housing and eviction prevention purposes.  Thus, a grantee’s administrative costs with respect to affordable rental housing and eviction prevention purposes may be paid with ERA2 funds only in an amount up to 15 percent of the grantee’s expenditures for these purposes.

1 As of the date of this FAQ, the definition of “very low-income families” in 42 U.S.C. 1437a(b) is “low-income families whose incomes do not exceed 50 per centum of the median family income for the area, as determined by the Secretary [of Housing and Urban Development] with adjustments for smaller and larger families, except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 50 per centum of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary’s findings that such variations are necessary because of unusually high or low family incomes.”  All references to “very low-income families” in this FAQ incorporate this definition.  The Department of Housing and Urban Development annually updates its calculations relevant to the definition of “very low-income families” at https://www.huduser.gov/portal/datasets/il.html.

2 Treasury’s reporting guidance will address the specific reporting and certification requirements associated with the uses of ERA2 funds described in this FAQ.

3 ERA2 award funds used for affordable rental housing and eviction prevention purposes will be subject to the applicable requirements set forth in the Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards (Uniform Guidance), 2 CFR Part 200. Specifically, ERA2 grantees are required to comply with the applicable procurement standards set forth in 2 CFR §§ 200.317 through 200.327 when procuring goods and services for these eligible purposes, and the allowability of expenses related to affordable rental housing and eviction prevention purposes will be subject to the Cost Principles set forth in 2 CFR Part 200, Subpart E.

4 Expenses for transitional housing (i.e., any dwelling that is intended to provide temporary housing to formerly homeless persons for a period up to 24 months) or emergency shelters are not considered “affordable rental housing projects” and therefore are not eligible “affordable rental housing purposes.”

5 For purposes of determining whether any expenses constitute affordable rental housing purposes under ERA2, in the event of a direct conflict between ERA2 requirements and requirements of a listed program to which a grantee will conform its affordable rental housing project, ERA2 requirements will prevail with respect to any portion of the project funded by ERA2 funds.  A direct conflict between program requirements occurs only when it is impossible to comply with the requirements of ERA2 and of the other program.  In contrast, if two sets of income or affordability-period requirements apply to the same units, there is no direct conflict; grantees must satisfy both by applying the more stringent requirements.

6 The specific units within a mixed-income housing project subject to the applicable income limitation may vary over time depending on operational needs, provided the units subject to the income limitation at any point do not materially differ from units funded by ERA2 funds.

7 See 2 CFR § 200.344.

Such approval occurs at the time of the execution of a written agreement or other legal instrument providing for the disbursement of ERA2 funds.

9 To determine whether a grantee has obligated ERA2 funds, Treasury will rely on the criteria set forth in section II.A of the ERA1 Reallocation Guidance originally published on October 4, 2021 and updated on March 30, 2022, available at https://home.treasury.gov/system/files/136/Updated-ERA1-Reallocation-Guidance%203-30-%202022.pdf.

Added on July 27, 2022

FAQ #46

What steps can ERA grantees take to prevent evictions for nonpayment of rent?

Treasury strongly encourages grantees to develop partnerships with courts in their jurisdiction that adjudicate evictions for nonpayment of rent to help prevent evictions and develop eviction diversion programs. For example, grantees should consider: (1) providing information to judges, magistrates, court clerks, and other relevant court officials about the availability of assistance under ERA programs and housing stability services; (2) working with eviction courts to provide information about assistance under ERA programs to tenants and landlords as early in the adjudication process as possible; and (3) engaging providers of legal services and other housing stability services to assist households against which an eviction action for nonpayment of rent has been filed.

FAQ #36

Added on June 24, 2021

Can grantees prohibit landlords from pursuing eviction for nonpayment of rent for some period after receiving ERA assistance?

With respect to landlords that receive funds under an ERA program for prospective rent, the grantee must prohibit the landlord from evicting the tenant for nonpayment of rent during the period covered by the assistance.

In addition, with respect to landlords that receive funds for rental arrears, to promote the purpose of the program the grantee is encouraged to prohibit the landlord from evicting the tenant for nonpayment of rent for some period of time, consistent with applicable law.

In all cases, Treasury strongly encourages grantees to require landlords that receive funds under the ERA, as a condition of receiving the funds, not to evict tenants for nonpayment of rent for 30 to 90 days longer than the period covered by the rental assistance.

FAQ #32

Added on May 7, 2021

White House Eviction Prevention Summit

On June 30, 2021 the White House hosted a first of its kind virtual Eviction Prevention Summit. The Summit included two parts: a public plenary on best practices on eviction prevention and a series of breakout sessions for local public officials, court officials, legal services organizations, local bar associations, community-based organizations, landlord associations, tenant advocates, emergency rental assistance administrators, and local philanthropies representing 46 cities across the country to develop eviction prevention action plans for their local areas.